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Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP) This is a scary term for a very simple concept. It's formally defined as "If S is a subtype of T, then objects of type T may be replaced with objects of type S (i.e., objects of type S may substitute objects of type T) without altering any of the desirable properties of that program (correctness, task. LSP is closely related to Single Responsibility Principle and Interface Segregation Principle. If a class has more functionality, then subclass might not upkeep some of the functionality and does violate LSP. To follow the LSP SOLID Design Principle, derived class or . * what does async vs blocking even mean in this context? all languages have the same problem, just use the libraries that are non-blocking. * mypy is the static type checker that is the most popular (k repositories, k packages), if you are using other type checkers then congrats, you will just be the CoffeeScript/Reason user of the JS.
Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. Can someone explain to me how to use PECS to resolve confusion between extends and super?
If you are only pulling items from a generic collection, it is a producer and you should use extends ; if you are only stuffing items in, it is a consumer and you should use super. If you do both with the same collection, you shouldn't use either extends or super.
Case 1: You want to go through the collection and do things with each item. Case 2: You want to add things to the collection. Here you don't care what is already in the list as long as it will allow a Thing to be added; this is what? The picture below should explain the concept. Picture courtesy: Andrey Tyukin. Covariance and contravariance. To illustrate this general phenomenon, consider the array type.
For the type Animal we can make the type Animal. Image src. Note: wildcard? The wildcard can be used as the type of a parameter, never used as a type argument for a generic method invocation, a generic class instance creation. Covariance and contravariance determine compatibility based on types.
In either case, variance is a directed relation. Covariance can be translated as " different in the same direction ," or with-different, whereas contravariance means " different in the opposite direction ," or against-different.
Covariant and contravariant types are not the same, but there is a correlation between them. The names imply the direction of the correlation. This means that when a parameterized type being passed to a method will produce instances of T they will be retrieved from it in some way ,?
When a parameterized type being passed to a method will consume instances of T they will be passed to it to do something ,? Note that generally you should only be using? Methods should just use T as the type parameter on a generic return type. Since you have a list that can be of type A, B or C at runtime , you cannot add any object of type A, B or C in it because you can end up with a combination that is not allowed in java.
In practice, the compiler can indeed see at compiletime that you add a B:. At runtime the list type can be any of the types A, B, C. Answer: It is the smallest you know. But HammerSkark can be extended too by somebody else and you end up in the same scenario. You can add the above types of objects because anything below shark A,B,C will always be subtypes of anything above shark X,Y,Z. Easy to understand. You cannot add types above Shark, because at runtime the type of added object can be higher in hierarchy than the declared type of the list X,Y,Z.
This is not allowed. But why you cannot read from this list? I mean you can get an element out of it, but you cannot assign it to anything other than Object o :. At runtime, the type of list can be any type above A: X, Y, Z, The compiler can compile your assignment statement which seems correct but, at runtime the type of s Animal can be lower in hierarchy than the declared type of the list which could be Creature, or higher. We cannot read from it. We cannot add element to it.
I find "PECS" to be a non-obvious way to think of things regarding who is the "producer" and who is the "consumer".
This is counter to how everything else is named though. Standard Java APIs are named from the perspective of the calling code, not the collection itself. For example, a collection-centric view of java. List should have a method named "receive " instead of "add " — after all, the calling code adds the element, but the list itself receives the element.
I think it's more intuitive, natural and consistent to think of things from the perspective of the code that interacts with the collection — does the code "read from" or "write to" the collection? Following that, any code writing to the collection would be the "producer", and any code reading from the collection would be the "consumer". When I first encountered this and broke it down in my head the mechanics made sense but the code itself continued to look confusing to me - I kept thinking "it seems like the bounds shouldn't need to be inverted like that" - even though I was clear on the above - that it's simply about guaranteeing compliance with the standard rules of reference.
Illustrating this in terms of the assignment analogy, for consumer the? For producer the concern is the same it's just inverted: producer 's? Covariance : accept subtypes Contravariance : accept supertypes. Consumer eat supper super ; Producer extends his parent's factory. If we consider the concept of 'class inheritance' in a Venn diagram, an example would be like this:. Mammal class extends Animal class Animal class is a super class of Mammal class.
The boxes of a producer should be smaller than our own box, because we are gonna take those boxes from the producer and put them into our own box. This means that the boxes of the consumer should NOT be smaller than our own box. If we want to put our own boxes into a consumer, the boxes of the consumer should be bigger than our box! In the above example, we want to read take something from src and write put them into dest.
Stack Overflow for Teams — Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group. Create a free Team What is Teams? Learn more. Ask Question. Asked 11 years ago. Active 1 month ago. Viewed k times. Improve this question. Lii 9, 6 6 gold badges 53 53 silver badges 73 73 bronze badges. A very good explanation with an example youtube.
Add a comment. Active Oldest Votes. Improve this answer. Valeriy Posvistak 1 1 silver badge 10 10 bronze badges. I'm always trying to think about it this way: A producer is allowed to produce something more specific, hence extends , a consumer is allowed to accept something more general, hence super.
Raman, I think you just confused it. Chatterjee: the reason for using wildcards is flexibility. It should be GEPS: get extends; put super. Show 9 more comments. The principles behind this in computer science is called Covariance:? Naman Hey everyone. Maybe I should write a more detailed answer that clearly shows how this sketch applies to Java This is one of the simplest and clearest explanations for Covariance and Contravariance that I have ever found!
Andrey Tyukin Hi, I also want to use this image. How can I contact you? If you have any questions about this illustration, we can discuss them in the chatroom: chat. I finally added an explanation for Scala's notions of covariance and contravariance, with a detailed explanation and compilable code. Show 4 more comments. This principle states that: Use an extends wildcard when you only get values out of a structure.
Use a super wildcard when you only put values into a structure. Covariance and contravariance Read-only data types sources can be covariant ; write-only data types sinks can be contravariant. Mutable data types which act as both sources and sinks should be invariant. For the type Animal we can make the type Animal covariant : a Cat is an Animal; contravariant : an Animal is a Cat; invariant : an Animal is not a Cat and a Cat is not an Animal.
ArrayStoreException: java. It stands for the family of all types. Use when you both get and put. T is the upper -most class in the inheritance hierarchy. Use an extends wildcard when you only Get values out of a structure. T is the lower -most class in the inheritance hierarchy. Use a super wildcard when you only Put values into a structure.