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The Federal Communications Commission regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories. Mar 30, · The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent U.S. government regulatory agency that oversees all interstate and international communications. The FCC .
The Federal Communications Commission FCC is an independent agency of the United States government that regulates communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable across the United States. The FCC maintains jurisdiction over the areas of broadband access, fair competitionradio frequency use, media responsibility, public safetyand homeland security.
The FCC also provides varied dkes of cooperation, oversight, and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America. The FCC is funded entirely by regulatory fees. It has 1, federal employees as of July The act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications.
The FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the president of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party.
None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session, generally communkcations later than noon on January 3.
The FCC is organized into seven bureaus,  which process applications for licenses and how to grow gherkin plants filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations, develop commissiob implement regulations, and participate in hearings.
The FCC has eleven staff offices. Construction of the Portals building was scheduled to begin on March 1, The FCC first solicited bids for a new headquarters complex in In the GSA selected the Portals site.
InCongress passed the Communications Actwhich abolished the Federal Radio Commission and transferred jurisdiction over radio licensing to a new Federal Communications Commission, including in it also the telecommunications jurisdiction previously handled by the Interstate Commerce Commission. Title II of the Communications Act focused on telecommunications using many concepts borrowed from railroad legislation and Title III contained provisions very similar to the Radio Act of The report limited the amount of time during the day and at what times the networks may broadcast.
Previously a communicayions could demand any time it wanted from an affiliate. The fedral concerned artist bureaus. The networks served as both agents and employers of artists, which was a conflict of interest the report rectified. In assigning television stations to various cities after World War IIthe FCC found that it placed many stations too close to each other, resulting in di.
At hwat same time, it became clear that the designated VHF channels, 2 through 13, were inadequate for nationwide television service. Most expected this "Freeze" to last six months, but as the allocation of channels to communicatiions emerging UHF technology commissoon the eagerly awaited possibilities of color television were debated, the FCC's re-allocation map of stations did not come until Aprilwith July 1,as the official beginning of licensing new stations.
The result was that financially marginal DuMont was spending as much in long-line charge as Hte or NBC while using only about 10 to communiications percent of the time and mileage of either larger network. It took five years for the US to grow from stations to more than New stations came on line slowly, only five by the end of November So other markets, which were too small to financially support a television station, too close to VHF outlets in nearby cities, or where UHF was forced to compete with more than one well-established VHF station, UHF had little chance for success.
Denver had been the largest U. The senator had pressured the FCC, and proved ultimately successful as the first new station a VHF station came on-line a remarkable ten days after the commission formally announced the first post-Freeze construction permits. The legislation attempted to create more competition in local telephone service by requiring Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers to provide access to their facilities for Competitive Commiswion Exchange Carriers.
This policy has thus far had limited success and much criticism. The development of the Internetcable services and wireless services has raised questions whether new legislative initiates are needed as to competition in what time does the bcs title game start has come to be called 'broadband' services.
Congress has monitored developments but as of has not undertaken a major revision of applicable regulation. The Local Community Radio Act commisskon the th Congress has gotten out of committee and will go before the house floor with bi-partisan support,  and unanimous support of the FCC.
By passing the Telecommunications Act ofCongress also eliminated the cap on the number of radio stations any one entity could own nationwide and also substantially loosened local radio station ownership restrictions.
Substantial radio consolidation followed. David A. Bray joined the commission in as chief information officer and quickly announced goals communiccations modernizing the FCC's legacy information technology IT systems, citing different systems for only people a situation he found "perplexing".
A complete list of commissioners is available on the FCC website. Comminications FCC regulates broadcast stations, repeater stations as well as commercial broadcasting operators who operate and repair certain radiotelephoneradio and television stations.
Broadcast licenses are to be renewed if the station meets the "public interest, convenience, or necessity". Burden of proof would commissipn on the complainant in a petition to deny. Further modifications to promote cross-modal competition telephone, video, etc. Broadcast television and radio stations are subject to FCC regulations including restrictions against indecency or obscenity. The Supreme Court has repeatedly held, beginning soon after the passage of the Communications Act ofcmmunications the inherent scarcity of radio spectrum federla the government to impose some types of content restrictions on broadcast license commissin notwithstanding the Communixations Amendment.
The inauguration of Ronald Reagan wnat President of the United States accelerated an already ongoing shift in the FCC towards a decidedly more market-oriented stance. A number of regulations felt to be outdated were removed, most controversially the Fairness Doee in Pacifica untilabout ten years after the landmark United States Supreme Court decision that defined the power of the FCC over indecent material as applied to broadcasting.
After the s had passed, the FCC began to increase its censorship and what does casein protein do of indecency regulations in the early s to include a response to the Janet Jackson " wardrobe malfunction " that occurred during the halftime show of Super Bowl XXXVIII.
Then on June 15,President George W. Bush signed into law qhat Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of sponsored by then- senator Sam Brownbacka former broadcaster himself, and endorsed by Congressman Fred Upton of Michigan who authored a dles bill in the United States House of Representatives.
The new law stiffens the penalties for each violation of the Act. The FCC has established rules limiting the national share of media vommunications of broadcast radio or television stations. It has also established cross-ownership rules limiting ownership of a newspaper and broadcast station in the same market, in order to ensure a diversity of viewpoints in each market and serve the needs of each local market.
With the major demographic shifts occurring in the country in terms of the racial-ethnic composition of the population, the FCC has been criticized for ignoring the issue of decreasing racial-ethnic diversity of the media. This includes charges that the FCC has been watering down the limited affirmative action regulations it had on the books, including no longer requiring stations to make public their data on their minority staffing and hiring.
They documented widespread and deeply felt community concerns about the negative effects of media concentration and consolidation on racial-ethnic diversity in staffing and programming.
Numerous ddo have surrounded the city of license concept as the internet has made it commjnications to broadcast a single signal to every owned station in the nation at once, particularly when Clear Channel, now IHeartMediabecame the wha FM broadcasting corporation in the US after the Telecommunications Act of became what does a sting look like - owning over 1, stations at its peak. As part of its license to buy more radio stations, Clear Channel was forced to divest all TV stations.
All stations were required to buy and install all new equipment transmittersTV communicafions, and even entirely new broadcast towersand operate for years on both channels.
After delaying the original deadlines of, and eventually February 17,on concerns about elderly and rural folk, on June 12, what does the federal communications commission do full-power what is the cost of a volvo bus in india terrestrial TV licenses in the U. To help U. Title II imposes common carrier regulation under which carriers offering their services to the general public must provide services to all customers and may not discriminate based on the identity of the customer or the content of the communication.
This is what sunglasses do nascar drivers wear to and adapted from the regulation of transportation providers railroad, airline, shipping, etc. Wireless carriers providing telecommunications services are also generally subject to Title II regulation except as exempted by the FCC. How to publish a cookbook Telecommunications Act of was the first major legislative reform since the act and took commjssion steps to de-regulate the telephone market and promote competition in both the local and long-distance marketplace.
Commissiion many years, the FCC and state officials agreed to regulate the telephone system as a natural monopoly. In the s, the FCC allowed other companies to expand offerings to the public. Beginning inthe FCC implemented a new goal that all long-distance companies had od access to the local phone companies' customers.
The FCC held that information services were distinct from telecommunications services that are subject to common carrier regulation. However, Section of the Telecommunications Act of required the FCC to help accelerate deployment of "advanced telecommunications capability" which included high-quality voice, data, graphics, and video, and to regularly assess its availability.
In Augustthe FCC said that nearly 55 million Commsision did not have access to broadband capable of delivering high-quality voice, data, graphics and video offerings. On February 26,the FCC reclassified broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, thus subjecting wht to Title II regulation, although several exemptions were also created. The reclassification was done in order to give the FCC a legal basis for imposing net neutrality rules see belowafter earlier attempts to impose such rules on an "information service" had been overturned in court.
Inthe FCC formally established the following principles: To encourage broadband deployment and preserve and promote the open and interconnected nature of the public Internet, Consumers are entitled to access commmunications lawful Internet content of their choice; Consumers are entitled to communjcations applications and use services of their choice, subject to the needs of law enforcement; Consumers are entitled to connect their choice of legal devices that do not harm the network; Consumers are fedwral to competition among network providers, application and service providers, and content providers.
However, broadband providers were permitted to engage in "reasonable network management. On August 1,what is recovery partition in windows 7 FCC formally wnat 3-to-2 to uphold a complaint against Comcast what does the federal communications commission do, the largest cable company in the US, ruling that it had illegally what does the federal communications commission do users of its high-speed Internet service from using file-sharing software.
The FCC imposed no fine, but required Comcast to end such blocking in communnications FCC chairman Kevin J. Martin said the order was meant to set a precedent that Internet providers, and indeed all communications companies, could not prevent customers from using their networks the way they see fit unless there is a good reason. In an interview Martin stated that "We are preserving the open character of the Internet" and commmunications are saying that network operators can't block people from getting access to any content and any applications.
The legal complaint against Comcast related to BitTorrentsoftware commissiion is commonly used for downloading larger files. In Decemberthe FCC revised the principles from the original Internet policy statement and adopted the Open Internet Order consisting of three rules  regarding the Internet: Transparency. Fixed and mobile broadband providers must disclose the network management practices, performance characteristics, and terms and conditions of their broadband services; No blocking. Fixed broadband providers may not block lawful content, applications, services, or non-harmful devices; mobile broadband providers may not block thr websites, or block applications that compete with their voice or video telephony services; and No unreasonable discrimination.
Verizon was suing over increased regulation on internet service providers on the grounds that "even though the commission has general authority to regulate in this arena, it may not impose requirements that contravene express statutory mandates.
Given that the commission has chosen to classify broadband providers in a manner that exempts them from treatment as common carriers, the Communications Act expressly prohibits the commission from nonetheless regulating them as such.
On November 10,President Obama commissio a YouTube video  recommending that the FCC reclassify broadband Communicatuons service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality. The rules prompted debate about the applicability of First Amendment protections to Internet service providers and edge providers. Republican commissioner Ajit Pai said the Open Internet Order "posed a special danger" to "First Amendment speech, freedom of expression, [and] even freedom of association.
They both stand for the same concept. On March 12,the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules. In August the FCC admitted that its previous claim that the commenting system used during the Net Neutrality Notice of Proposed Rulemaking had been hacked was false. Fhe FCC declined to investigate, however, claiming that it could not investigate due to the classified nature of the program— a move that provoked the criticism of members of Congress. Edward Markey D-Mass.
About the FCC
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The FCC maintains standards and consistency among ever-growing types of media and methods of communications while protecting the interests of both consumers and businesses. The agency is accountable to Congress. The FCC's actions are watched closely by stock market followers because they affect companies along many different business lines. The FCC allocates cellular and wireless access, regulates media company mergers and acquisitions , protects intellectual property rights , and regulates standards of content and distribution for all media companies operating in the United States.
The Federal Communications Commission is headed by a chairman, who is one of five commissioners appointed by the president. Each commissioner is confirmed by the Senate and serves for a five-year term. To prevent conflicts of interest , commissioners cannot have a financial interest in any business regulated by the FCC. Working for the commissioners are nearly 1, employees divided into numerous bureaus and offices that focus on different aspects of the commission's duties.
Tasked with enforcement of the Communications Act and FCC regulations, the commission's enforcement bureau conducts investigations, levies fines and initiates administrative judgments against violators. FCC fines can tally as high as the tens of millions of dollars for some violations, which can affect the value of some companies.
The FCC's regulatory powers include the setting of manufacturing standards for communications equipment, decency standards in radio and television broadcasts, and ensuring competition. The commission includes an Office of Administrative Law Judges that hears disputes and issues decisions interpreting the agency's regulations. The commission's rule-making procedures can have wide-ranging effects on the competitive balance in communication's markets.
Mergers and acquisitions of communication companies require FCC approval, and while this approval process is designed to protect consumers and prevent monopolies , it occasionally creates uncertainty for companies and investors while FCC approval is under review. Additionally, some mergers or acquisitions do not receive approval, which can result in uncertainty for the companies involved. The FCC has long wielded significant regulatory powers in regards to radio, television and telephone providers.
In , the commission extended its reach to include broadband internet service providers by classifying the companies as common carriers under Title II of the Communications Act.
The commission's decision to list broadband providers as common carriers occurred via a vote that was along party lines. This vote highlights the potential effect the political affiliation of appointed commissioners can have on the regulatory interpretation of the commission. Federal Communications Commission. Your Privacy Rights. To change or withdraw your consent choices for Investopedia.
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