China Is Facing A BIG Population Crisis
The current population of China is 1,,, as of Wednesday, April 21, , based on Worldometer elaboration of the latest United Nations data. China population is estimated at 1,,, people at mid year according to UN data. Currently, % of the population of China is urban (,, people in ) Urban Population China Urban vs. Rural Population from to Rural Population Urban Population 0 M 1 M 1 M 2 M.
The demographics of China demonstrate a large population with a relatively small youth component, partially a result of China 's one-child policy. China's population reached 1 billion in As of NovemberChina's population stood at 1. According to the census China's population growth rate is only 0.
During Ч, the population grew to nearly 1. Under Mao ZedongChina nearly doubled in population from million in to million in This growth slowed because of the one-child policy instituted in The People's Republic of China conducted censuses in,and Inthe government announced that the fourth national census would take place in and that there would be one every ten years thereafter.
The census which reported a total population of 1,, is generally accepted as significantly more reliable, accurate, and thorough than the previous two. China has been the world's most populous nation for many how to tom yum kung. By the sixth census inthe total population had reached to 1,, with the mainland having 1,, Hong Kong having 7,, and Macau havingIn China conducted its first population census since It was by far the most thorough and accurate census taken since and confirmed that China was a nation of more than 1 billion people, or about one-fifth of the world's population.
The census provided demographers with a set of data on China's age-sex structure, fertility and mortality rates, and population density and distribution. Information was also gathered on minority ethnic groups, urban population, and marital status.
For the first time since the People's Republic of China was founded, demographers had reliable information on the size and composition of the What is the drug indocin used for work force. The nation began preparing for the census in late Chinese census workers were sent to the United States and Japan to study modern census-taking techniques and automation. Computers what is the population in china now installed in every provincial-level unit except Tibet and were connected to a central processing system in the Beijing headquarters of the State Statistical Bureau.
Pretests and small scale trial runs were conducted and checked for accuracy between and in twenty-four provincial-level units. Census stations were opened in rural production brigades and urban neighborhoods. Beginning on 1 Julyeach household sent a representative to a census station to be enumerated. The census required about a month to complete and employed approximately 5 million census takers.
The census collected data in nineteen demographic categories relating to individuals and households. The thirteen areas concerning individuals were name, relationship to head of household, sex, age, nationality, registration status, educational level, profession, occupation, status of nonworking persons, marital status, number of children born and still living, and number of births in The six items pertaining to households were type domestic or collectiveserial number, number of persons, number of births innumber of deaths inand number of registered persons absent for more than one year.
Information was gathered in a number of important areas for which previous data were either extremely inaccurate or simply nonexistent, including fertility, marital status, urban population, minority ethnic groups, sex composition, age distribution, and employment and unemployment.
A fundamental anomaly in the statistics was noted by some Western analysts. They pointed out that although the birth and death rates recorded by the census and those recorded through the household registration system were different, the two systems arrived at similar population totals.
The discrepancies in the vital rates were the result of the underreporting of both births and deaths to the authorities under the registration system; families would not report some births because of the what is the population in china now policy and would not report some deaths so as to hold on to the rations of the deceased.
Nevertheless, the census was a watershed for both Chinese and world demographics. After an eighteen-year gap, population specialists were given a wealth of reliable, up-to-date figures on which to reconstruct past demographic patterns, measure current population conditions, and predict future population trends.
For example, Chinese and foreign demographers used the census age-sex structure as the base population for forecasting and making assumptions about future fertility trends. The data on age-specific fertility and mortality rates provided the necessary base-line information for making population projections.
The census data also were useful for estimating future manpower potential, consumer needsand utilityenergy, and health-service requirements. The sudden abundance of demographic data helped population specialists immeasurably in their efforts to estimate world population. Demographers who had been conducting research on global population without accurate data on the Chinese fifth of the world's population were particularly thankful for the breakthrough census.
Initially, China's post leaders were what is poverty level income in america 2010 disposed to view a large population as an asset.
But the liabilities of a large, rapidly growing population soon became apparent. For one year, starting in Augustvigorous support was given to the Ministry of Public Health's mass birth control efforts. These efforts, however, had little impact on fertility. After the interval of the Great Leap ForwardChinese leaders again saw rapid population growth as an obstacle to development, and their interest in birth control revived. In the early s, schemes somewhat more muted than during the first campaign, emphasized the virtues of late marriage.
Birth control offices were set up in the central government and some provincial-level governments in The second campaign was particularly successful in the cities, where the birth rate was cut in half during the Ч66 period.
The upheaval of after hysteroscopy what about pregnancy Cultural Revolution brought the program to a halt, however.
In and the party mobilized its resources for a nationwide birth control campaign administered by a group in the State What does retinyl palmitate do for the skin. Committees to oversee birth control activities were established at all administrative levels and in various collective enterprises. This extensive and seemingly effective network covered both the rural and the urban population. In urban areas public security headquarters included population control sections.
In rural areas the country's " barefoot doctors " distributed information and contraceptives to people's commune members. By Mao Zedong was personally identified with the family planning movement, signifying a greater leadership commitment to controlled population growth than ever before. Yet until several years after Mao's death inthe leadership was reluctant to put forth directly the rationale that population control was necessary for economic growth and improved living standards.
Population growth targets were set for both administrative units and individual families. In the mids the maximum recommended family size was two children in cities and three or four in the country. Since the government has advocated a one-child limit for both rural and urban areas and has generally set a maximum of two children in special circumstances. As of the policy for minority nationalities was two children per couple, three in special circumstances, and no limit for ethnic groups with very small populations.
The overall goal of the one-child policy was to keep the total population within 1. The one-child policy was a highly ambitious population control program.
Like previous programs of the s and s, the one-child policy employed a combination of public education, social pressure, and in some cases coercion. The one-child policy was unique, however, in that it linked reproduction with economic cost or benefit. Under the one-child program, a sophisticated system rewarded those who observed the policy and penalized those who did not. Through this policy, the increasing population got temperate after the penalties were made.
Couples with only one child were given a "one-child certificate" entitling them to such benefits as cash bonuses, longer maternity leavebetter child careand preferential housing assignments. In return, they were required to pledge that they would not have more children. In the countryside, there was great pressure to adhere to the one-child limit. In rural areas the day-to-day work of family planning was done by cadres at the team and brigade levels who were responsible for women's affairs and by health workers.
The women's team leader made regular household visits to keep track of the status of each family under her jurisdiction and collected information on which women were using contraceptivesthe methods used, and which had become pregnant. She then reported to the brigade women's leader, who documented the information and took it to a monthly meeting of the commune birth-planning committee.
According to reports, ceilings or quotas had to be adhered to; to satisfy these cutoffs, unmarried young people were persuaded to postpone marriage, couples without children were advised to "wait their turn," women with unauthorized pregnancies were pressured to have abortions, and those who already had children were urged to use contraception or undergo sterilization.
Couples with more than one child were exhorted [ by whom? The one-child policy enjoyed much greater success in urban than in rural areas. Even without state intervention, there were compelling reasons for urban couples to limit the family to a single child.
Raising a child required a significant portion of family income, and in the cities a child did not become an economic asset until he or she entered the work force at age sixteen.
Couples with only one what are trans fats in were given preferential treatment in housing allocation. In addition, because city dwellers who were employed in state enterprises received pensions after retirement, the sex of their first child was less important to them than it was to those in rural areas.
Numerous reports surfaced of coercive measures used to achieve the desired results of the one-child policy. The alleged methods ranged from intense psychological pressure to the use of physical force, including some grisly accounts of forced abortions and infanticide.
Chinese officials admitted that isolated, uncondoned abuses of the program occurred and that they condemned such acts, but they insisted that the family planning program was administered on a voluntary basis using persuasion and economic measures only. International reaction to the allegations were mixed. Observers suggested that an accurate assessment of the one-child program would not be possible until all women who came of childbearing age in the early s passed their fertile years.
As of the one-child program had achieved mixed results. In general, it was very successful in almost all urban areas but less successful in rural areas. Rapid fertility reduction associated with the one-child policy has potentially negative results. For instance, in the future the elderly might not be able to rely on their children to care for them as they have in the past, leaving the state to assume the expense, which could be considerable.
Based on United Nations and Chinese government statistics, it was estimated in that by the year the population 60 years and older the retirement age is 60 in urban areas would number million, or Inthe number of people over 60 is expected to increase to million.
China needs to find an appropriate birth policy to optimize the demographic dividend, which refers to the proportion of labor-age population. However, the overall population density of China conceals major regional variations.
Broadly speaking, the population was concentrated east of the mountains [ which? The most densely populated areas included the Yangtze River Valley of which the delta region was the most populousSichuan BasinNorth China PlainPearl River Deltaand the industrial area around the city of Shenyang in the northeast.
Population is most sparse in the mountainous, desert, and grassland regions of the northwest and southwest. In Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, portions are completely uninhabited, and only a few sections have populations denser than ten people per km 2.
China's fertility statistics differ depending on the source. Children born per woman from to It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. While the official number of births in will not be released until April, the number of newborn babies in China registered with the police fell by double digits between and according to the Ministry of Public Security, from
China Population Forecast
China 1,,, 2. India 1,,, 3. United States ,, 4. Indonesia ,, 5. Pakistan ,, Aug 09, †Ј China, officially known as the PeopleТs Republic of China, is the worldТs most populated country with a population of approximately billion people. It is one of the only two countries (the other being India) whose population has passed the one billion ebrovary.com: John Misachi. 6 rows†Ј Population Rank. Country. Population NaN; 1. China: 1,,, 6. Nigeria: ,, 2.
The population history of China covers the long-term pattern of population growth in China and its impact on the history of China. For recent trends see demographics of China and China. During the Warring States period Ч BC , the development of private commerce, new trade routes, handicraft industries, and a money economy led to the growth of new urban centers. These centers were markedly different from the older cities, which had merely served as power bases for the nobility.
Demographic historian Angus Maddison uses extensive data to argue that the main base of the Chinese economy shifted southwards between about AD and AD. In three quarters of the population lived in the rural north, growing wheat and millet. By about three quarters lived south of the Yangtze and grew mainly rice. By AD per capita income in China was higher the Europe average at the same time. Divergence took place from fifteenth and eighteenth centuries as the European economy grew faster.
From to China saw a fourfold increase in population whilst maintaining an average per capita income more or less stable. The main explanation were peace, irrigation and fast ripening seeds that permitted two crops a year.
Chinese total GDP grew faster than that of western Europe from to , even though European per capita income grew faster. Sinologist historians debate the population figures for each era in the Ming dynasty.
The historian Timothy Brook notes that the Ming government census figures are dubious since fiscal obligations prompted many families to underreport the number of people in their households and many county officials to underreport the number of households in their jurisdiction.
Even adult women were underreported; for example, the Daming Prefecture in North Zhili reported a population of , males and , females in Some part of the gender imbalance may be attributed to the practice of female infanticide. The practice is well documented in China, going back over two thousand years, and it was described as "rampant" and "practiced by almost every family" by contemporary authors. The number of people counted in the census of was 59,,; however, this number dropped significantly when the government found that some 3 million people were missing from the tax census of Even though underreporting figures was made a capital crime in , the need for survival pushed many to abandon the tax registration and wander from their region, where Hongwu had attempted to impose rigid immobility on the populace.
The government tried to mitigate this by creating their own conservative estimate of 60,, people in Historians are now turning to local gazetteers of Ming China for clues that would show consistent growth in population. Using the gazetteers, Brook estimates that the overall population under the Chenghua Emperor r. While prefectures across the empire in the mid-Ming period were reporting either a drop in or stagnant population size, local gazetteers reported massive amounts of incoming vagrant workers with not enough good cultivated land for them to till, so that many would become drifters, conmen, or wood-cutters that contributed to deforestation.
The Hongzhi and Zhengde emperors lessened the penalties against those who had fled their home region, while the Jiajing Emperor r.
Even with the Jiajing reforms to document migrant workers and merchants, by the late Ming era the government census still did not accurately reflect the enormous growth in population.
Gazetteers across the empire noted this and made their own estimations of the overall population in the Ming, some guessing that it had doubled, tripled, or even grown fivefold since Fairbank estimates that the population was perhaps million in the late Ming dynasty,  while Brook estimates million,  and Ebrey states perhaps as large as million. The most significant facts of early and mid-Qing social history was growth in population, population density, and mobility.
The population in , according to widely accepted estimates, was roughly million, about what it had been under the late Ming a century before, then doubled over the next century, and reached a height of million on the eve of the Taiping Rebellion in An additional factor was the spread of New World crops like peanuts, potatoes, and especially sweet potatoes.
They helped to sustain the people during shortages of harvest for crops such as rice or wheat. These crops could be grown under harsher conditions, and thus were cheaper as well, which led to them becoming staples for poorer farmers, decreasing the number of deaths from malnutrition.
Diseases such as smallpox, widespread in the seventeenth century, were brought under control by an increase in inoculations. In addition, infant deaths were also greatly decreased due to improvements in birthing techniques and childcare performed by midwives and doctors. Government campaigns lowered the incidence of infanticide. Unlike Europe, where numerical growth in this period was greatest in the cities, in China the growth in cities and the lower Yangzi was low.
The greatest growth was in the borderlands and the highlands, where farmers could clear large tracts of marshlands and forests. The population was also remarkably mobile, perhaps more so than at any time in Chinese history. Indeed, the Qing government did far more to encourage mobility than to discourage it.
After the conquests of the s and s, the court organized agricultural colonies in Xinjiang. Migration might be permanent, for resettlement, or the migrants in theory at least might regard the move as a temporary sojourn.
The latter included an increasingly large and mobile workforce. Local-origin-based merchant groups also moved freely. This mobility also included the organized movement of Qing subjects overseas, largely to Southeastern Asia , in search of trade and other economic opportunities. Chinese scholars had kept count of 1, instances of famine from BC to in one province or anotherЧan average of close to one famine per year.
From to a famine in the north killed 6 million Chinese. The four famines of , , , and cost perhaps 45 million lives. The period from to saw, as a result of the Taiping Rebellion , drought, and famine, the population of China drop by over 30 million people. These events are comparable, though somewhat smaller in scale, to the ecological trigger events of China's vast 19th-century famines. When a stressed monarchy shifted from state management and direct shipments of grain to monetary charity in the midth century, the system broke down.
Thus the Ч68 famine under the Tongzhi Restoration was successfully relieved but the Great North China Famine of Ч78, caused by drought across northern China, was a catastrophe.
The province of Shanxi was substantially depopulated as grains ran out, and desperately starving people stripped forests, fields, and their very houses for food. Estimated mortality is 9. The largest famine of the 20th century, and almost certainly of all time, was the Ч famine associated with the Great Leap Forward in China. The immediate causes of this famine lay in Mao Zedong's ill-fated attempt to transform China from an agricultural nation to an industrial power in one huge leap.
Communist Party cadres across China insisted that peasants abandon their farms for collective farms, and begin to produce steel in small foundries, often melting down their farm instruments in the process. Collectivisation undermined incentives for the investment of labor and resources in agriculture; unrealistic plans for decentralized metal production sapped needed labor; unfavorable weather conditions; and communal dining halls encouraged overconsumption of available food.
When the leadership did become aware of the scale of the famine, it did little to respond, and continued to ban any discussion of the cataclysm. This blanket suppression of news was so effective that very few Chinese citizens were aware of the scale of the famine, and the greatest peacetime demographic disaster of the 20th century only became widely known twenty years later, when the veil of censorship began to lift. The number of famine deaths during Ч range from 18 million  to at least 42 million  people, with a further 30 million cancelled or delayed births.
Chinese emigration first occurred thousands of years ago. The mass emigration that occurred from the 19th century to was caused mainly by wars and starvation in mainland China, as well as political corruption. In there were million overseas Chinese. From to , the government of China permitted the great majority of families to have only one child.
During this time, the birth rate dropped from nearly 6 children per woman to just under 3. As China's youngest generation born under the one-child policy came of age for formation of the next generation, a single child would be left with having to provide support for their two parents and four grandparents.
By families could have two children if one of the parents is an only child. The policy was supposedly voluntary. It was more strongly enforced in urban areas, where housing was in very short supply. Policies included free contraceptives, financial and employment incentives, economic penalties, and sometimes forced abortions and sterilizations. After the policy was steadily relaxed. Han Chinese living in rural areas were often permitted to have two children, as exceptions existed if the first child was a daughter.
In addition, since , Han Chinese in southern Xinjiang were allowed to have two children. This, along with incentives and restrictions against higher Muslim Uyghur fertility, was seen as attempt to counter the threat of Uyghur separatism. In the national policy changed to a two-child policy; in it changed to a three-policy.
In , about two years after the new policy reform, China is facing new ramifications from the two-child policy. Since the revision of the one-child policy, 90 million women have become eligible to have a second child.
After the reform, China saw a short-lived boost in fertility rate for Chinese women gave birth to In China, men still have greater marital power, which increases fertility pressure on their female partners. However, women have shown interest in a second child if the first child did not possess the desired gender. Chinese couples were also polled and stated that they would rather invest in one child opposed to two children.
In May , it was reported that Chinese authorities were in the process of ending their population control policies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. March Further information: Society and culture of the Han dynasty.
See also: Northern Chinese Famine of Ч , Chinese famine of Ч , and Chinese famine of Ч Main articles: Overseas Chinese and Chinese emigration. Main article: One-child policy. Main article: Two-child policy. Chinese views of childhood. Mallory, China: Land of famine p. Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 14 April Economic Development and Cultural Change. S2CID British Medical Journal.